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Performance of Swarm Routing Protocol Under MANET

Caution :

If you try to use SWARM routing under highly mobile and try to send much data which will consume much bandwidth, then the performance of the SWARM routing will become very worst. Some of the papers that you see in literature may try to hide this fact.

Further, this evaluation is an elementary evaluation that considered only “time vs performance” as a metric. So any serious research on this routing protocol will need a lot of iterative simulations and more advanced analysis.

Important Sections of the Simulation Script

Some of the important parameters

set val(chan) Channel/WirelessChannel ;# channel type
set val(prop) Propagation/TwoRayGround ;# radio-propagation model
set val(ant) Antenna/OmniAntenna ;# Antenna type
set val(ll) LL ;# Link layer type
set val(ifq) Queue/DropTail/PriQueue ;# Interface queue type
set val(ifqlen) 50 ;# max packet in ifq
set val(netif) Phy/WirelessPhy ;# network interface type
set val(mac) Mac/802_11 ;# MAC type
set val(rp) [lindex $argv 0] ;# Change it as SWARM or AODV or DSR
set val(TotalNodes) 10
set val(xdim) 1000
set val(ydim) 500
set val(speed) 20 ;# Change it as SWARM or AODV or DSR
set val(StartTime) 0.00
set val(SimTime) 50.00

# unity gain, omni-directional antennas
# set up the antennas to be centered in the node and 1.5 meters above it
Antenna/OmniAntenna set X_ 0
Antenna/OmniAntenna set Y_ 0
Antenna/OmniAntenna set Z_ 1.5
Antenna/OmniAntenna set Gt_ 1.0
Antenna/OmniAntenna set Gr_ 1.0

# Initialize the SharedMedia interface with parameters to make
# it work like the 914MHz Lucent WaveLAN DSSS radio interface
Phy/WirelessPhy set CPThresh_ 10.0
Phy/WirelessPhy set CSThresh_ 1.559e-11
Phy/WirelessPhy set RXThresh_ 3.652e-10
Phy/WirelessPhy set Rb_ 2*1e6

#inital transmission power of all the nodes
Phy/WirelessPhy set Pt_ 0.2819;# Change it if required
Phy/WirelessPhy set freq_ 914e+6 
Phy/WirelessPhy set L_ 1.0

Setting Node Configuration

 

$ns node-config -adhocRouting $val(rp) \
-llType $val(ll) \
-macType $val(mac) \
-ifqType $val(ifq) \
-ifqLen $val(ifqlen) \
-antType $val(ant) \
-propType $val(prop) \
-phyType $val(netif) \
#-channelType $val(chan) \
-topoInstance $topo \
-agentTrace ON \
-routerTrace ON \
-macTrace ON \
-movementTrace OFF \
-channel $chan_1

Creating Nodes and Setting up Some mobility

 

for {set i 0} {$i < [expr $val(TotalNodes) ] } {incr i} {
set node($i) [$ns node ]
$node($i) random-motion 1 ;# disable random motion
set tx [$rng integer [expr $val(xdim)-100]]
set ty [$rng integer [expr $val(ydim)-100]]
set tx [expr $tx + 50 ]
set ty [expr $ty + 50 ]
$node($i) set X_ $tx
$node($i) set Y_ $ty
$node($i) set Z_ 0.0
$node($i) color "black"
$ns initial_node_pos $node($i) 10
}

# set the position of the sender and reciever at two extreme ends
set x 100
set y [expr $val(ydim) - 100 ]
$node(0) set X_ $x
$node(0) set Y_ $y
$node(0) set Z_ 0.0
$ns initial_node_pos $node(0) 20
$ns at 0.0 "$node(0) setdest $x $y 20000.0"
$ns at 0.0 "$node(0) label Sender"
$ns at 0.0 "$node(0) color blue"

set x [expr $val(xdim) - 100 ]
set y 100
set n [expr $val(TotalNodes) -1 ]
$node($n) set X_ $x
$node($n) set Y_ $y
$node($n) set Z_ 0.0
$ns initial_node_pos $node($n) 20
$ns at 0.0 "$node($n) setdest $x $y 20000.0"
$ns at 0.0 "$node($n) label Reciever"
$ns at 0.0 "$node($n) color blue"

if {$val(speed) > 0 } {
for {set i 0} {$i < [expr $val(TotalNodes) ]} {incr i} {
set tx [$rng integer [expr $val(xdim)-100]]
set ty [$rng integer [expr $val(ydim)-100]]
set tx [expr $tx + 50 ]
set ty [expr $ty + 50 ]
$node($i) random-motion 1
$ns at 0.0 "$node($i) setdest $tx $ty $val(speed)"
}
}

 

 

Setting up some traffic

# Setup traffic flow between nodes
# CBR connections between node(0) and node(1)

set udp [new Agent/UDP]
$udp set class_ 2
set sink [new Agent/LossMonitor]

$ns attach-agent $node(0) $udp
$ns attach-agent $node([expr $val(TotalNodes) -1 ]) $sink
$ns connect $udp $sink

set cbr [new Application/Traffic/CBR]
$cbr set class_ 2
$cbr set packetSize_ 1024
$cbr set interval_ 0.05

$cbr attach-agent $udp

$ns at 0.002 "$cbr start"


$ns at $val(StartTime) "$cbr stop"
$ns at $val(SimTime).01 "stop"

Record Some Events for Performance Analysis

proc record {} {
global sink fpRecieved fpDropped fdTput fdLrate

#Get An Instance Of The Simulator
set ns [Simulator instance]

#Set The Time After Which The Procedure Should Be Called Again
set time 2.0

#How Many Bytes Have Been Received By The Traffic Sinks?
set npkts [$sink set npkts_]
set nbytes [$sink set bytes_]
set nlost [$sink set nlost_]

#Get The Current Time
set now [$ns now]

#Save Data To The Files
puts $fpRecieved "$now [expr $nbytes]"
puts $fdTput "$now [expr $nbytes/$time*8/1000000]"

if {$npkts> 0.0 } {
set lossrate1 [expr $nlost / $npkts ]
puts $fdLrate "$now $lossrate1"
} else {
puts $fdLrate "$now 0"
}

$sink set bytes_ 0


#Re-Schedule The Procedure
$ns at [expr $now+$time] "record"

}


The Nam Outputs

Overall Results without Mobility

Average Received Packets over time

Average Loss Rate Over Time

 

Average Throughput Over Time


Without mobility, SWARM routing gave very good throughput

 

The loss rate is very very low in the case of SWARM and AODV while comparing it with DSR

Without mobility, the received bytes is high. The Graph is almost similar to the throughput graph, but the x-axis is showing the total received bytes.

Overall results with Mobility 20m/sec

Average Received Packets over time

 

Average Received Packets over time

Average Throughput Over Time


With mobility, the received bytes are almost equal in all the three protocols

With mobility, the Packet loss rate is low in the case of SWARM and AODV

Conclusion :

Without mobility and a low rate of traffic (as in this experiment), SWARM routing performed well. But, with mobility, all three protocols gave almost equal throughput. As I mentioned in the very first paragraph, if you try to use SWARM routing under highly mobile and try to send much data which will consume much bandwidth, then the performance of the SWARM routing will become very worst. Some of the papers that you see in literature may try to hide this fact.

So, if we use SWAM in a network without mobility (such as sensor network) and with suitably less traffic condition, then SWAM may compete with some of the existing MANET routing protocols

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